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Without properyou may see.
As the birthplace of and the site of of thein a 3 km 2 mi from Mecca, Mecca is regarded as the inand a to it, known as theis for all able.
Mecca click to see more home to theone of and the.
Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad'stheacting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities.
It was conquered by in 1925, since then Mecca has seen a tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, such as thealso known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with theand lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the.
Non-Muslims are from entering the city.
The word "Mecca" in English has come to be used to refer to any place that draws large numbers of people, and because of this some English speaking Muslims have come to regard the use of this spelling for the city as offensive.
The Saudi government adopted Makkah as the official spelling in the 1980s, but is not universally known or used worldwide.
An word, itslike that of Mecca, is obscure.
This form is used for the name Mecca in the :96, while the form Mecca is used in :24.
Another name for Mecca, or the wilderness and mountains surrounding it, according https://filmman.ru/bingo-free/free-printable-customizable-bingo-cards.html Arab and Islamic tradition, is Faran or Pharan, referring to the mentioned in the at :21.
Arab and Islamic tradition holds that the wilderness of Paran, broadly speaking, is the and the site where Ishmael settled was Mecca.
As of May 2015the mayor of the city was Dr.
Osama bin Fadhel Al-Bar.
Mecca is the capital of the Makkah Region, which includes neighboring.
The provincial governor was prince from 2000 until his death in 2007.
On 16 May 2007, prince was appointed as the new governor.
History 1787 Turkish map ofand related religious sites, such as Jabal al-Nour The early history of Mecca is still largely disputed, as there are no unambiguous references to it in ancient literature prior to the rise of Islam.
The Roman Empire took control of part of the in 106ruling cities such as Hegra now known aslocated to the north of Mecca.
Even though detailed descriptions were established of Western Arabia by Rome, such as bythere are no references of a pilgrimage and trading outpost such as Mecca.
The first direct mention of Mecca in external literature occurs in 741 CE, in the Byzantine-Arab Chronicle, though here the author places it in Mesopotamia rather than the Hejaz.
Given the inhospitable environment and lack of historical references in Roman, Persian and Indian sources, historians including and click the following article cast doubt on the claim that Mecca was a major historical trading outpost.
Potential ancient references The Greek historian writes about Arabia in his workdescribing a holy shrine: "And a temple has been set up there, which is very holy and exceedingly revered by all Arabians".
Claims have been made this could be a reference to the Kaaba in Mecca.
However, the geographic location Diodorus describes is located in northwest Arabia, around the area ofcloser to and within the former and Rome's.
There has been speculation since 1646 that this is could be a reference to Mecca, but there is no compelling explanation to link the two names.
Islamic view In the Islamic view, the beginnings of Mecca are attributed to 's descendants.
The Old Testament chapter :3—6, and a mention of a pilgrimage at thethat Muslims see as referring to the mentioning of Mecca as Bakkah in Quran's Surah 3:96.
Some time in the 5th century, the Kaaba was a place of worship for the deities of.
Mecca's most important waswhich had been placed there by the ruling tribe and remained until the 7th century.
In the Sharḥ al- Asāṭīr, a commentary on the Samaritan chronology of the Patriarchs, of unknown date but probably composed in the tenth century C.
In thethe Quraysh took control of Mecca, and became skilled merchants and traders.
In the 6th century they joined the lucrativesince battles elsewhere were diverting from dangerous sea routes to more secure overland routes.
The had previously controlled thebut had been increasing.
Another previous route that ran through the via the and rivers was also being threatened by exploitations from theand was being disrupted by thetheand the.
Mecca's prominence as a trading center also surpassed the cities of and.
The Sassanids however did not always pose a threat to Mecca, as in 575 CE they protected Mecca city from invasion by theled by its Christian leader.
The tribes of southern Arabia asked the Persian king for aid, in response to which he came south to Arabia with foot-soldiers and a fleet of ships into Mecca.
The Persian intervention prevented Christianity from spreading eastward into Arabia, and Mecca and the Islamic prophet Muhammad, who was at the time six years old in the Quraysh tribe, "would not grow up under the cross.
Although the area around Mecca was completely barren, it was the wealthiest of the three settlements with abundant water via the renowned and a position at the crossroads of major routes.
The harsh conditions and terrain of the Arabian peninsula meant a near-constant state of conflict between thebut once a year they would declare a truce and converge upon Mecca in an annual pilgrimage.
Up to the 7th century, this journey was intended for religious reasons by the pagan Arabs to pay homage to their shrine, and to drink from the Zamzam Well.
However, it was also the time each year that disputes would be arbitrated, debts would be resolved, and trading would occur at Meccan fairs.
These annual events gave the tribes a sense of common identity and made Mecca an important focus for the peninsula.
The is the name in history for the year approximately equating to 570.
According to Islamic tradition, it was in this year that was born.
The name is derived from an event said to have occurred at Mecca.
According to early Islamic historians such as, the Christian ruler ofwhich was subject to the ofbuilt a great at known as al-Qullays in honor of the Aksumite king.
It gained widespread fame, even gaining the notice of the.
Abraha attempted to divert the pilgrimage of Arab people from Kaaba to al-Qullays and appointed a man named Muhammad ibn Khuza'i to Mecca and as a king with a message that al-Qullays was both much better than other houses of worship and purer, having not been defiled by the housing of idols.
When Muhammad ibn Khuza'i got as far as the land ofthe people of the lowland, knowing what he had come for, sent a man of called ʿUrwa bin Hayyad al-Milasi, who shot him with an arrow, killing him.
His brother Qays who was with him fled to Abraha and told him the news, which increased his rage and fury and he swore to raid the Kinana tribe and destroy the temple.
Ibn Ishaq further states that one of the men of the was angered by this, and going to Sana'a, slipped into the church at night and defiled it; it is widely assumed that they did so by in it.
When news of the advance of Abraha's army came, the Arab tribes of the Quraysh, Banu Kinanah, and Banu Hudhayl united in defense of the Kaaba.
A man from the was sent by Abraha to advise them that Abraha only wished to demolish the Kaaba and if they resisted, they would be crushed.
Abraha sent a dispatch inviting Abdul-Muttalib to meet with Abraha and discuss matters.
When Abdul-Muttalib left the meeting he was heard saying, "The Owner of this House is its Defender, and I am sure he will save it from the attack of the adversaries and will not dishonor the servants of His House.
However, the lead elephant, known as Mahmud, is said to have stopped at the boundary around Mecca and refused to enter.
It has been theorized that an epidemic such as by could have caused such a failed invasion of Mecca.
The reference to the story in is rather short.
The birds carried small rocks in their beaks, and bombarded the Ethiopian forces and smashed them like "eaten straw".
Camel caravans, said to have first been used by Muhammad's great-grandfather, were a major part of Mecca's bustling economy.
Alliances were struck between the merchants in Mecca and the local nomadic tribes, who would bring goods — leather, livestock, and metals mined in the local mountains — to Mecca to be loaded on the caravans and carried to cities in and.
Historical accounts also provide some indication that goods from other continents may also have flowed through Mecca.
Goods from Africa and the Far East passed through en route to Syria including spices, leather, medicine, cloth, and slaves; in return Mecca received money, weapons, cereals and wine, which in turn were distributed throughout Arabia.
The Meccans signed treaties with both the Byzantines and theand negotiated safe passages for caravans, giving them water and pasture rights.
Mecca became the center of a loose confederation of client tribes, which included those of the.
Other regional powers such as theGhassan, and Lakhm were in decline leaving Meccan trade to be the primary binding force in Arabia in the late 6th century.
Islamic tradition According to Islamic tradition, the history of Mecca goes back towho built the with the help of his elder son in around 2000 Slot bingo free online, when the inhabitants of the site then known as Bakkah had fallen away from the original of Abraham through the influence of the.
He was born in a minor faction, theof the ruling.
It was in Mecca, in the nearby mountain cave of onthat, according to Islamic tradition, Muhammad began receiving divine from God through the in 610 AD, and advocated his form of against Meccan paganism.
After enduring persecution from the pagan tribes for 13 years, Muhammad emigrated see in 622 with his companions, theto Yathrib later called Medina.
The conflict between the Quraysh and the Muslims, however, continued: The two fought in thewhere the Muslims defeated the Quraysh outside Medina; while the ended indecisively.
Overall, Meccan efforts to annihilate Islam failed apologise, bingo free online download game interesting proved to be costly and unsuccessful.
During the in 627, the combined armies of Arabia were unable to defeat Muhammad's forces.
In 628, Muhammad and his followers wanted to enter Mecca for pilgrimage, but were blocked by the Quraysh.
Subsequently, Muslims and Meccans entered into thewhereby the Quraysh promised to cease fighting Muslims and promised that Muslims would be allowed into the city to perform the pilgrimage the following year.
It was meant to be a ceasefire for 10 years.
However, just two years later, the Quraysh violated the truce by slaughtering a group of Muslims and their allies.
Muhammad and his companions, now 10,000 strong, marched into Mecca.
However, instead of continuing their fight, the city of Mecca surrendered to Muhammad, who declared peace and amnesty for its inhabitants.
The pagan imagery was destroyed by Muhammad's followers and the location and rededicated to the worship of God.
Mecca was declared as the holiest site in Islam ordaining it as the center of Muslim pilgrimage, one of the faith's.
Then, Muhammad returned to Medina, after assigning as governor of the city.
His other activities in Arabia led to the unification of the peninsula.
Muhammad died in 632, but with the sense of unity that he had passed on to his Islamic nationIslam began a rapid expansion, and within the next few hundred years stretched from North Africa into Asia and parts of Europe.
As the grew, Mecca continued to attract pilgrims from all across the and beyond, as Muslims came to perform the annual Hajj pilgrimage.
Mecca also attracted a year-round population of scholars, pious Muslims who wished to live close to the Kaaba, and local inhabitants who served the pilgrims.
Due to the difficulty and expense of the Hajj, pilgrims arrived by boat at Jeddah, and came overland, or joined the annual caravans from Syria or Iraq.
Medieval and pre-modern times The Mecca was never the capital of any of the but Muslim rulers did contribute to its upkeep.
During the reigns of 634—644 CE and 644—656 concerns of flooding caused the caliphs to bring in Christian engineers to build barrages in the low-lying quarters and construct dykes and embankments to protect the area round the Kaaba.
Muhammad's shifted the focus away from Mecca.
This focus moved still more whenthe fourth caliph, took power choosing as his capital.
The moved the capital to in Syria and the toin modern-day Iraq, which remained the center of the Islamic Empire for nearly 500 years.
Mecca re-entered Islamic political history during thewhen it was held byan early Muslim who opposed the Umayyad caliphs.
The city was twice besieged by the Umayyads, in and.
For some time thereafter the city figured little in politics, remaining a city of devotion and scholarship governed by the Hashemite.
In 930, Mecca was attacked and sacked bya led by and centered in eastern Arabia.
The hit Mecca in 1349.
In 1517, the Sharif, Barakat bin Muhammed, acknowledged the supremacy of the but retained a great degree of local autonomy.
In 1803 the city was captured by bingo casino free slots machineswhich held Mecca until 1813.
This was a massive blow to the prestige of the Turkish Ottoman Empire, which had exercised sovereignty over the holy city since 1517.
The Ottomans assigned the task of bringing Mecca back under Ottoman control to their powerful viceroy of Egypt.
Muhammad Ali Pasha successfully returned Mecca to Ottoman control.
In 1818, followers of the juristic school were again defeated, but some of the Al Saud clan survived and founded the that lasted until 1891 and led on to the present country of Saudi Arabia.
Mecca was regularly hit by.
Between 1830 and 1930 cholera broke out among pilgrims at Mecca 27 times.
In his travels, he provides us with an important description of the city.
Around the year 729, Ibn Battuta arrived in Mecca.
Immediately when Battuta arrived in Mecca it felt like a holy sanctuary and thus he started the rites of the pilgrimage.
He remained in Mecca for a couple of years.
During Battuta's second year there, his caravan arrived "with a great quantity of alms for the support of those who were staying in Mecca and Medina" p.
Giving these alms to the poor also helped to fulfill another pillar of faith, while he was also fulfilling the pillar of making the Pilgrimage to Mecca.
While in Mecca, prayers were made for the King of Irak and then also for El Melik El Nasir.
The prayers were made in the Temple of Mecca.
This temple is very large, but was also destroyed once and was rebuilt a little bit smaller than the original.
The temple also contained images of angels, prophets, Free bingo games, his mother Mary and many others.
This temple is one of the most important parts of Mecca due to the fact that many people make the pilgrimage to Mecca for the purpose of going to the temple.
The people of Mecca were also an important aspect of the village.
They were described as being humble and kind, also willing to give a part of everything they had to someone who had nothing.
The inhabitants of Mecca and the village itself was very clean.
There was also a sense of elegance to the village.
Ibn Battuta spent about three years in Mecca before he left with intentions of moving on to Yemen.
Mecca nowadays is a lot different than Battuta saw it, but it still is a place of holiness.
The city has become more advanced with new technology, but along with new skyscrapers and event centers, it still contains temples that are important for the pilgrimages to Mecca.
Revolt of the Sharif of Mecca Inthe Ottoman Empire was at war with Britain and its allies, having sided with Germany.
It had successfully repulsed an attack on Istanbul in the and on Baghdad in the.
The British agent conspired with the Ottoman governorthe Sharif of Mecca.
Hussein bin Ali revolted against the Ottoman Empire from Mecca, and it was the first city captured by his forces in the.
Sharif's revolt proved a turning point of the war on the eastern front.
Sharif Hussein declared a new state, theand declared Mecca as the capital of the new kingdom.
News reports in November 1916 via contact in with returning pilgrims, said that with the Ottoman Turkish authorities gone, Mecca at Hajj 1916 was thankfully free of the previous massive extortion and illegal money-demanding by Turks who were agents of the Ottoman government.
Saudi Arabia Following thethe Sharif of Mecca was overthrown by the Saud family, and Mecca was incorporated into Saudi Arabia.
Under Saudi rule, much of the historic city has been demolished as a result of construction programs —.
On 20 November 1979 two hundred armed dissidents led by Saudi preacher.
They claimed that the Saudi royal family no longer represented pure Islam and that the The Sacred Mosque and the Kaaba, must be held by those of true faith.
The rebels seized tens of thousands of pilgrims as hostages and barricaded themselves in the.
The siege lasted two weeks, and resulted in several hundred deaths and significant damage to the shrine, especially the gallery.
However, the first real expansion was undertaken by in 1956.
The second expansion took place during the era of.
The project was launched in 1988 by the late Saudi.
By the end of this expansion, the great mosque had the capacity to accommodate one, and a half Million Worshippers.
The third expansion took place during era as the mosque was able to accommodate around two million.
Destruction of historic buildings See also: Under Saudi rule, it has been estimated that since 1985 about 95% of Mecca's historic buildings, most over a thousand years old, have been demolished.
Historic sites of religious importance which have been destroyed by the Saudis include five of the renowned "Seven Mosques" initially built by Muhammad's daughter and four of his "greatest Companions": Masjid Abu Bakr, Masjid Salman al-Farsi, Masjid Umar ibn al-Khattab, Masjid Sayyida Fatima bint Rasulullah and Masjid Ali ibn Abu Talib.
It has been reported that there are now fewer than 20 structures remaining in Mecca that date back to the time of Muhammad.
Other buildings that have been destroyed include the house ofthe wife of Muhammad, demolished to make way for public lavatories; the house ofMuhammad's companion, now the site of the local ; the house of Muhammad's grandson and thenow the location of the King's palace in Mecca; Muhammad's birthplace, demolished to make way for a library; and the Ottoman-erademolished for construction of the.
The reason for much of the destruction of historic buildings has been for the construction of hotels, apartments, parking lots, and other infrastructure facilities for pilgrims.
However, many have been destroyed without any such reason.
For example, when the house of Ali-Oraid was discovered, himself ordered that it be bulldozed lest it should become a pilgrimage site.
Pilgrimage The involves pilgrims visiting Al-Haram Mosque, but mainly camping and spending time in the plains of and The pilgrimage to Mecca attracts millions of Muslims from all over the world.
There are two pilgrimages: the and the.
The Hajj, the 'greater' pilgrimage is performed annually in Mecca and nearby sites.
During the Hajj, several million people of this free instant bingo games topic nationalities worship in unison.
Umrah, the lesser pilgrimage, is not obligatory, but is recommended in the Qur'an.
Often, they perform the Umrah while visiting Al-Haram Mosque.
Incidents during pilgrimage Main article: Mecca has been the site of several incidents and failures of crowd control because of the large numbers of people who come to make the Hajj.
For example, on 2 July 1990, a pilgrimage to Mecca ended in tragedy when the ventilation system failed in a crowded pedestrian tunnel and 1,426 people were either suffocated or trampled to death in a.
On 24 September 2015, 700 pilgrims in a stampede at during the stoning-the-Devil ritual at Jamarat.
Geography Mecca is at an elevation of 277 m 909 ft above sea level, and approximately 80 km 50 mi inland from the Red Sea.
Central Mecca lies in a corridor between mountains, which is often called the "Hollow of Mecca".
The area contains the valley of Al Taneem, the Valley of Bakkah and the valley of Abqar.
This mountainous location has defined the contemporary expansion of the city.
The city centers on the Masjid al-Haram area, which is lower than most of the city.
The area around the mosque is the old city.
The main avenues are Al-Mudda'ah and Sūq al-Layl to the north of the mosque, and As-Sūg Assaghīr to the south.
As the Saudis expanded the Grand Mosque in the center of the city, hundreds of houses were replaced by wide avenues and city squares.
Traditional homes are built of local rock and are generally two to three stories.
The total area of Mecca today is over 1,200 km 2 460 sq mi.
In pre-modern Mecca, the city used a few chief sources of water.
The first were local wells, such as the Zamzam Well, that produced generally brackish water.
The second source was the spring of Ayn Zubayda.
The sources of this spring are the mountains of J̲abal Saʿd Jabal Sa'd and Jabal Kabkāb, which are a few kilometers east of Jabal Arafa or about 20 km 12 mi southeast of Mecca.
Water was transported from it using underground channels.
A very sporadic third source was rainfall which was stored by the people in small reservoirs or.
The rainfall, scant as it is, also presents the threat of flooding and has been a danger since earliest times.
According to Al-Kurdī, there had been 89 historic floods by 1965, including several in the Saudi period.
In the last century the most severe flood was in 1942.
Since then, dams have been build to ameliorate this problem.
Neighborhoods Main article: Mecca features a.
Like most Saudi Arabian cities, Mecca retains warm to hot temperatures even in winter, which can range from 18 °C 64 °F at night to 30 °C 86 °F in the afternoon.
Summer temperatures are extremely hot and consistently break the 40 °C 104 °F mark in the afternoon, dropping to 30 °C 86 °F in the evening.
Rain usually falls in Mecca in small amounts scattered between November and January.
Climate data for Mecca Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C °F 37.
The mosque surrounds the Kaaba, which Muslims turn towards while offering.
This mosque is also commonly known as the or Grand Mosque.
Asbecause of the hostility to reverence being paid to historic and religious buildings, Mecca has lost most of its heritage in recent years and few buildings from the last 1,500 years have survived Saudi rule.
Expansion of the city is ongoing and includes the construction of 601 m 1,972 ft tall across the street from the Masjid al-Haram.
The towers were the third tallest building in the bingo free holiday games when completed in 2012.
The construction of the towers involved the demolition of thewhich in turn sparked a dispute between Turkey and Saudi Arabia.
The is home to a celebrated water spring.
However, the Saudi government removed the structure to give space for hotels and business buildings near to the Grand Mosque.
The Quran Gate Thelocated on the Jeddah-Mecca Highway, marks the boundary of the area www meccagames com non-Muslims are prohibited to enter.
It is the entrance to Makkah and the birthplace of Muhammad.
The gate was designed in 1979 by an Egyptian architect, Samir Elabd, for the architectural firm IDEA Center.
The structure is that of a book, representing the Qur'an, sitting on a rehal, or book stand.
Economy The Meccan economy has been heavily dependent on the annual pilgrimage.
The income was generated in a number of ways.
One method was taxing the pilgrims.
Taxes especially increased during theand many of these taxes existed as late as 1972.
Another way the Hajj generates income is through services to pilgrims.
For example, the Saudi, generates 12% of its income from the pilgrimage.
Fares paid by pilgrims to reach Mecca by land also generate income; as do the hotels and lodging companies that www meccagames com them.
There are some industries and factories in the city, but Mecca no longer plays a major role in Saudi Arabia's economy, which is mainly based on oil exports.
The few industries operating in Mecca include textiles, furniture, and utensils.
The majority of the economy is service-oriented.
Makkah Azizia district at noon Nevertheless, many industries have been set up in Mecca.
Various types of enterprises that have existed since 1970: corrugated iron manufacturing, copper smithies, carpentry shops, upholstering establishments, vegetable oil extraction plants, sweets manufacturies, flour mills, bakeries, poultry farms, frozen food importing, photography processing, secretarial establishments, ice factories, bottling plants for soft drinks, barber shops, www meccagames com shops, travel agencies and banks.
The city has grown substantially in the 20th and 21st centuries, as the convenience and games on windows most phone played of travel has increased the number of pilgrims check this out in the.
Thousands of Saudis are employed year-round to oversee the Hajj and staff the hotels and shops that cater to pilgrims; these workers in turn have increased the demand for housing and services.
The city is now ringed by freeways, and contains shopping malls and skyscrapers.
Health care Health care is provided by the Saudi government free of charge to all pilgrims.
Culture Al-Haram Mosque and the Mecca's culture has been affected by the large number of pilgrims that arrive annually, and thus boasts a rich cultural heritage.
As a result of the vast numbers of pilgrims coming to the city each year, Mecca has become by far the most diverse city in the Muslim world.
In contrast to the rest of Saudi Arabia, and particularlyMecca has, according tobecome "a striking oasis" of free thought and discussion and, also, of "unlikely liberalism" as "Meccans see themselves as a bulwark against the creeping extremism that has overtaken much Islamic debate".
The first press was brought to Mecca in 1885 byan Ottoman.
During the Hashemite period, it was used to print the city's official gazette, al-Qibla.
The Saudi regime expanded this press into a larger operation, introducing the new Saudi official gazette Umm al-Qurā.
Henceforth presses and printing techniques were introduced in the city from around themostly via Jeddah.
Mecca owns its hometown paper.
However, other Saudi and international newspapers are also provided in Mecca such as the, and.
The first three are Mecca's and other Saudi cities' primary newspapers focusing mainly on issues that affect the city, with over a million readers.
Many television stations serving the city area include, and various cable, satellite and other specialty television providers.
In pre-modern Mecca the most common sports were impromptu wrestling bingo slots machines free foot races.
Cuisine As in other Arabian cities, a spiced dish of rice and meat is the most traditional lunch but the a dish of rice and tandoori cooked meat is also popular.
Duringand are the most popular dishes and are eaten at.
These dishes are almost always found in, and restaurants.
Traditionally during the month of Ramadan, men known as Saggas provided mineral water and fruit juice for Muslims breaking their fast at dusk.
Today, Saggas make money providing sweets such as and basbosa along with fruit juice drinks.
Exotic foods, such as fruits from India and Japan, are often brought by the pilgrims.
Demographics Population density in Mecca is very high.
Most long-term residents of Mecca live in the Old City, and many work in the industry known locally as the Hajj Industry.
Iyad Madani, Saudi Arabia's minister for Hajj, was quoted as saying, "We never stop preparing for the Hajj.
Pilgrims are from varying and backgrounds, mainly, theand.
Many of these pilgrims have remained and become residents of the city.
The Burmese are an older, more established community who number roughly 250,000.
Adding to the Hajj-related diversity, the oil-boom of the past 50 years has brought hundreds of thousands of working immigrants.
Non-Muslims are not permitted to enter Mecca underand using fraudulent documents to do so may result in arrest and prosecution.
The prohibition extends toas they are considered non-Muslims.
Nevertheless, many non-Muslims and Ahmadis have visited the city.
The first such recorded example of non-Muslims is that of of in 1503.
One of the most famous waswho traveled as a from in 1853.
Truly the Pagans are unclean; so let them not, after this year of theirs, approach the Sacred Mosque.
The first major attempt to improve the situation was made by a Jeddah merchant, Muhammad ʿAlī Zaynal Riḍā, who founded the Madrasat al-Falāḥ in Mecca in 1911—12 that cost £400,000.
The school system in Mecca has many public and private schools for both males and females.
As of 2005, there were 532 and for males and another 681 public and private schools for female students.
The medium of instruction in both public and private schools is Arabic with emphasis on English as abut some private schools founded by foreign entities such as use the English language for medium of instruction.
They also allow mixing between males and females while other schools do not.
For higher education, the city has only one university,which was established in 1949 as a college and became a public university in 1979.
Saadanius is considered to be a primate closely related to the common ancestor of the and.
The fossil habitat, near what is now the Red Sea in western Saudi Arabia, was a damp forest area between 28 million and 29 million years ago.
Paleontologists involved in the research hope to find further fossils in the area.
Communications Telecommunications in the city were emphasized early under the Saudi reign.
King Ibn Saud pressed them forward as he saw them as a means of convenience and better governance.
While in time there were about 20 telephones in the entire city; in 1936 the number jumped to 450, totalling about half the telephones in the country.
By 1985, Mecca, like other Saudi cities, possessed modern telephone, telex, radio and television communications.
Limited radio communication was established within the Kingdom under the Hashimites.
In 1929, wireless stations were set up in various towns of the region, creating a network that would become fully functional by 1932.
Soon after World War II, the existing network was greatly expanded and improved.
Since then, radio communication has been used extensively in directing the pilgrimage and addressing the pilgrims.
This practice started in 1950, with the initiation of broadcasts theand increased until 1957, at which time Radio Makka became the most powerful station in the Middle East at 50 kW.
Later, power was increased to 450 kW.
Music was not immediately broadcast, but gradually introduced.
Transportation Air Hajj terminal Mecca has only the small Mecca East Airport with no airline service, so Mecca is served by : JED, : OEJN located atabout 100 kilometres from the city centre.
To cater the large number of Hajj pilgrims, this airport has a specifically built Hajj terminal which can accommodate 47 planes simultaneously and it can receive 3,800 pilgrims per hour during the Hajj season.
Rail Haramain High-Speed Railway In 2018, Haramain High-Speed Railway was launched connecting the Two holy cities of Makkah and Medina together.
The railway consists of 35 trains and it is capable to transport 60 million passengers.
Every train is as fast as 300km per hour and travels over the distance of 450 km.
Al Mashaaer Al Mugaddassah Metro is a metro line in Mecca opened in 13 November 2010.
Mecca Metro Mecca Metro Route Mapofficially known as Makkah Mass Rail Transit, is a planned four-line system for the city.
This will be in addition to the which carries pilgrims during Hajj.
Intercity A high speed inter-city rail line also known as the "Western Railway"is under construction in Saudi Arabia.
It will link along 444 kilometres 276 mithe Muslim holy cities of and Mecca via, Jeddah and.
This rail line is planned to provide a safe and comfortable transport in 320 kilometres per hour 200 mph in-turn reducing the travel time to less than two hours between Mecca and.
It will be built by a business consortium from.
Retrieved 3 February 2013.
Statistical Yearbook 47 2011.
Archived from on 1 December 2013.
Retrieved 15 November 2013.
Global Vision Publishing Ho.
Mecca, The Blessed, Medina, The Radiant: The Holiest Cities of Islam.
The Hajj: The Muslim Pilgrimage to Mecca and the Holy Places.
Continuum International Publishing Group.
Versteegh; Kees Versteegh eds.
University of Minnesota Press.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs Malaysia.
Retrieved 28 July 2015.
Retrieved 20 April 2015.
The New York Times.
Retrieved 1 January 2008.
Retrieved 1 January 2008.
In the Shadow of the Sword; Little, Brown; p.
Oldfather, Diodorus Of Sicily, Volume II, William Heinemann Ltd.
Meccan Trade and the Rise of Islam.
Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London.
Translated by Abū Rumaysah.
Archived from on 20 December 2010.
Retrieved 15 March 2013.
This elephant was called Mahmud and it was sent to Abrahah fromthe king of Abyssinia, particularly for this expedition.
Wikiversity Journal of Medicine.
CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list In turn citing: Willan R.
New York: Robert Appleton Company.
Retrieved 6 April 2010.
Archived from on 21 July 2009.
Retrieved 6 April 2010.
The Travels of Ibn Battuta.
Archived 1 November 2009.
Archived from on 18 October https://filmman.ru/bingo-free/guest-bingo-free.html />Retrieved 3 August 2007.
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البوابة الإلكترونية لوزارة التعليم.
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Retrieved 18 January 2013.
Islam in the World.
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Retrieved 24 September 2015.
Archived from on 29 May 2007.
Retrieved 6 April 2010.
Archived from on 10 November www meccagames com />Archived from on 14 July 2011.
Retrieved 3 February 2013.
Jeddah Regional Climate Center.
Archived from on 12 May 2012.
Retrieved 29 October 2015.
Baseline climate means 1961—1990 from stations all over the world in German.
Retrieved 25 January 2016.
Archived from on 9 April 2007.
Retrieved 6 April 2010.
Archived from on 6 December 2010.
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Archived from the original on 15 February 2008.
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London: The Independent UK.
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What life was like in the lands of the prophet: Islamic world, AD 570—1405.
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As the birthplace of and the site of of thein a 3 km 2 mi from Mecca, Mecca is regarded as the inand a to it, known as theis for all able.
Mecca is home to theone of and the.
Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad'stheacting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities.
It was conquered by in 1925, since then Mecca has seen a tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, such as thealso known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with theand lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the.
Non-Muslims are from entering the city.
The word "Mecca" in English has come to be used to refer to any place that draws large numbers of people, and because of this some English speaking Muslims have come to regard the use of this spelling for the city as offensive.
The Saudi government adopted Makkah as the official free bingo voucher codes in the 1980s, but is not universally known or used worldwide.
An word, itslike that of Mecca, is obscure.
This form is used for the most games on windows Mecca in the :96, while the form Mecca is used in :24.
Another name for Mecca, or the wilderness and mountains surrounding it, according to Arab and Islamic tradition, is Faran or Pharan, referring to the mentioned in the at :21.
Arab and Islamic tradition holds that the wilderness of Paran, broadly speaking, is the and the site where Ishmael settled was Mecca.
As of May 2015the mayor of the city was Dr.
Osama bin Fadhel Al-Bar.
Mecca is the capital of the Makkah Region, which includes neighboring.
The provincial governor was prince from 2000 until his death in 2007.
On 16 May 2007, prince was appointed www meccagames com the new governor.
History 1787 Turkish map ofand related religious sites, such as Jabal al-Nour The early history of Mecca is still largely disputed, as there are no unambiguous references to it in ancient literature prior to the rise of Islam.
The Roman Empire took control of part of the in 106ruling cities such as Hegra now known aslocated to the north of Mecca.
Even though detailed descriptions were established of Western Arabia by Rome, such as bythere are no references of a pilgrimage and trading outpost such as Mecca.
The first direct mention of Mecca in external literature occurs in 741 CE, in the Byzantine-Arab Chronicle, though here the author places it in Mesopotamia rather than the Hejaz.
Given the inhospitable environment and lack of historical references in Roman, Persian and Indian sources, historians including and have cast doubt on the claim that Mecca was a major historical trading outpost.
Potential ancient references The Greek historian writes about Arabia in his workdescribing a holy shrine: "And a temple has been set up there, which is very holy and exceedingly revered by all Arabians".
Claims have been made this could be a reference to the Kaaba in Mecca.
However, the geographic location Diodorus describes is located in northwest Arabia, around the area ofcloser to and within the former and Rome's.
There has been speculation since 1646 that this is could be a reference to Mecca, but there is no compelling explanation to link the two names.
Islamic view In the Islamic view, the beginnings of Mecca are attributed to 's descendants.
The Old Testament chapter :3—6, and a mention of a pilgrimage at thethat Muslims see as referring to the mentioning www meccagames com Mecca as Bakkah in Quran's Surah 3:96.
Some time in the 5th century, the Kaaba was a place of worship for the deities of.
Mecca's most important waswhich had been placed there by the ruling tribe and remained until the 7th century.
In the Sharḥ al- Asāṭīr, a commentary on the Samaritan chronology of the Patriarchs, of unknown date but probably composed in the tenth century C.
In thethe Quraysh took control of Mecca, and became skilled merchants and traders.
In the 6th century they joined the lucrativesince battles elsewhere were diverting from dangerous sea routes to more secure overland routes.
The had previously controlled thebut had been increasing.
Another previous route that ran through the via the and rivers was also being threatened by exploitations from theand was being disrupted by thetheand the.
Mecca's prominence as a trading center also surpassed the cities of and.
The Sassanids however did not always pose a threat to Mecca, as in 575 CE they protected Mecca city from invasion by theled by its Christian leader.
The tribes of southern Arabia asked the Persian king for aid, in response to which he came south to Arabia with foot-soldiers and a fleet of ships into Mecca.
The Persian intervention prevented Christianity from spreading eastward into Arabia, and Mecca and the Islamic prophet Muhammad, who was at the time six years old in the Click tribe, "would not grow up under the cross.
Although the area around Mecca was completely barren, it was the wealthiest of the three settlements with abundant water via the renowned and a position at the crossroads of major routes.
The harsh conditions and terrain of the Arabian peninsula meant a near-constant state of conflict between thebut once a year they would declare a truce and converge upon Mecca in an annual pilgrimage.
Up to the 7th century, this journey was intended for religious reasons by the pagan Arabs to pay homage to their shrine, and to drink from the Zamzam Well.
However, it was also the time each year that disputes would be arbitrated, debts would be resolved, and trading would occur at Meccan fairs.
These annual events gave the tribes a sense of common identity and made Mecca an important focus for the peninsula.
The is the name in history for the year approximately equating to 570.
According to Islamic tradition, it was in this year that was born.
The name is derived from an event said to have occurred at Bingo slots machines free />According to early Islamic historians such as, the Christian ruler ofwhich was subject to the ofbuilt a great at known as al-Qullays in honor of the Aksumite king.
It gained widespread fame, even gaining the notice of the.
Abraha attempted to divert the pilgrimage of Arab people from Kaaba to al-Qullays and appointed a man named Muhammad ibn Khuza'i to Mecca and as a king with a message that al-Qullays was both much better than other houses of worship and purer, having not been defiled by the housing of idols.
When Muhammad ibn Khuza'i got as far as the land ofthe people of the lowland, knowing what he had come for, sent a man of called ʿUrwa bin Hayyad al-Milasi, who shot him with an arrow, killing him.
His brother Qays who was with him fled to Abraha and told him the news, which increased his rage and fury and he swore to raid the Kinana tribe and destroy the temple.
Ibn Ishaq further states that one of the men of the was angered by this, and going to Sana'a, slipped into the church at night and defiled it; it is widely assumed that they did so by in it.
When news of the advance of Abraha's army came, the Arab tribes of the Quraysh, Banu Kinanah, and Banu Hudhayl united in defense of the Kaaba.
A man from the was sent by Abraha to advise them that Abraha only wished to demolish the Kaaba and if they resisted, they would be crushed.
Abraha sent a dispatch inviting Abdul-Muttalib to meet with Abraha and discuss matters.
When Abdul-Muttalib left the meeting he was heard saying, "The Owner of this House is its Defender, and I am sure he will save it from casino free cleopatra bingo slots attack of the adversaries and will not dishonor the servants of His House.
However, the lead elephant, known as Mahmud, is said to have stopped at the boundary around Mecca and refused to enter.
It has been theorized that an epidemic such as by could have caused such a failed invasion of Mecca.
The reference to the story in is rather short.
The birds carried small rocks in their beaks, and bombarded the Ethiopian forces and smashed them like "eaten straw".
Camel caravans, said to have first been used by Muhammad's great-grandfather, were a major part of Mecca's bustling economy.
Alliances were struck between the merchants in Mecca and the local nomadic tribes, who would bring goods — leather, livestock, and metals mined in the local mountains — to Mecca to be loaded on the caravans and carried to cities in and.
Historical accounts also provide some indication that goods from other continents may also have flowed through Mecca.
Goods from Africa and the Far East passed through en route to Syria including spices, leather, medicine, cloth, and slaves; in return Mecca received money, weapons, cereals and wine, which in turn were distributed throughout Arabia.
The Meccans signed treaties with both the Byzantines and theand negotiated safe passages for caravans, giving them water and pasture rights.
Mecca became the center of a loose confederation of client tribes, which included those of the.
Other regional powers such as theGhassan, and Lakhm were in decline leaving Meccan trade to be the primary binding force in Arabia in the late 6th century.
Islamic tradition According to Islamic tradition, the history of Mecca goes back towho built the with the help of his elder son in around 2000 BCE, when the inhabitants of the site then known as Bakkah had fallen away from the original of Abraham through the influence of the.
He was born in a minor faction, theof the ruling.
It was in Mecca, in the nearby mountain cave of onthat, according to Islamic tradition, Muhammad began receiving divine from God through the in 610 AD, and advocated his form of more info Meccan paganism.
After enduring persecution from the pagan tribes for 13 years, Muhammad emigrated see in 622 with his companions, theto Yathrib later called Medina.
The conflict between the Quraysh and the Muslims, however, continued: The two fought in thewhere the Muslims defeated the Quraysh outside Medina; while the ended indecisively.
Overall, Meccan efforts to annihilate Islam failed and proved to be costly and unsuccessful.
During the in 627, the combined armies of Arabia were unable to defeat Muhammad's forces.
In 628, Muhammad and his followers wanted to enter Mecca for pilgrimage, but were blocked by the Quraysh.
Subsequently, Muslims and Meccans entered into thewhereby the Quraysh promised to cease fighting Muslims and promised that Muslims would be allowed into the city to perform the pilgrimage the following year.
It was meant to be a ceasefire for 10 years.
However, just two years later, the Quraysh violated the truce by slaughtering a group of Muslims and their allies.
Muhammad and his companions, now 10,000 strong, marched into Mecca.
However, instead of continuing their fight, the city of Mecca surrendered to Muhammad, who declared peace and amnesty for its inhabitants.
The pagan imagery was destroyed by Muhammad's followers and the location and rededicated to the worship of God.
Mecca was declared as the holiest site in Islam ordaining it as the center of Muslim pilgrimage, one of the faith's.
Then, Muhammad returned to Medina, after assigning as governor of the city.
His other activities in Arabia led to the unification of the peninsula.
Muhammad died in 632, but with the sense of unity that he had passed on to his Islamic nationIslam began a rapid expansion, and within the next few www meccagames com years stretched from North Africa into Asia and parts of Europe.
As the grew, Mecca continued to attract pilgrims from all across the and beyond, as Muslims came to perform the annual Hajj pilgrimage.
Mecca also attracted a year-round population of scholars, pious Muslims who wished to live close to bingo application download Kaaba, and local inhabitants who served the pilgrims.
Due to the difficulty and expense of the Hajj, pilgrims arrived by boat at Jeddah, and came overland, or joined the annual caravans from Syria or Iraq.
Medieval and pre-modern times The Mecca was never the capital of any of the but Muslim rulers did contribute to its upkeep.
During www meccagames com reigns of 634—644 CE and 644—656 concerns of flooding caused the caliphs to bring in Christian engineers to build barrages in the low-lying quarters and construct dykes and embankments to protect the area round the Kaaba.
Muhammad's shifted the focus away from Mecca.
This focus moved still more whenthe fourth caliph, took power choosing as his capital.
The moved the capital to in Syria and the toin modern-day Iraq, which remained the center of the Islamic Empire for nearly 500 years.
Mecca re-entered Islamic political history during thewhen it was held byan early Muslim who opposed the Umayyad caliphs.
The city was twice besieged by the Umayyads, in and.
For some time thereafter the city figured little in politics, remaining a city of devotion and scholarship governed by the Hashemite.
In 930, Mecca was attacked and sacked bya led by and centered in eastern Arabia.
The hit Mecca in 1349.
In 1517, the Sharif, Barakat bin Muhammed, acknowledged the supremacy of the but retained a great degree of local autonomy.
In 1803 the city was captured by thewhich held Mecca until 1813.
This was a massive blow to the prestige of the Turkish Ottoman Empire, which had exercised sovereignty over the holy city since 1517.
The Ottomans assigned the task of bringing Mecca back under Ottoman control to their powerful viceroy of Egypt.
Muhammad Ali Pasha successfully returned Mecca to Ottoman control.
In 1818, followers of the juristic school were again defeated, but some of the Al Saud clan survived and founded the that lasted until 1891 and led on to the present country of Saudi Arabia.
Mecca was regularly hit by.
Between 1830 and 1930 cholera broke out among pilgrims at Mecca 27 times.
In his travels, he provides us with an important description of the city.
Around the year 729, Ibn Battuta arrived in Mecca.
Immediately when Battuta arrived in Mecca it felt like a holy sanctuary and thus he started the rites of the pilgrimage.
He remained in Mecca for a couple of years.
During Battuta's second year there, his caravan arrived "with a great quantity of alms for the support of those who were staying in Mecca and Medina" p.
Giving these alms to the poor also helped to fulfill another pillar of faith, while he was also fulfilling the pillar of making the Pilgrimage to Mecca.
While in Mecca, prayers were made for the King of Irak and then also for El Melik El Nasir.
The prayers were made in the Temple of Mecca.
This temple is very large, but was also destroyed once and was rebuilt a little bit smaller than the original.
The temple also contained images of angels, prophets, Jesus, his mother Mary and many others.
This temple is one of the most important parts of Mecca due to the fact that many people make the pilgrimage to Mecca for the purpose of going to the temple.
The people of Mecca were also an important aspect of the village.
They were described as being humble and kind, also willing to give a part of everything they had to someone who had nothing.
The inhabitants of Mecca and the village itself was very clean.
There was also a sense of elegance to the village.
Ibn Battuta spent about three years in Mecca before he left with intentions of moving on to Yemen.
Mecca nowadays is a lot different than Battuta saw it, but it still is a place of holiness.
The city has become more advanced with new technology, but along with new skyscrapers and event centers, it still contains temples that are important for the pilgrimages to Mecca.
Revolt of the Sharif of Mecca Inthe Ottoman Empire was at war with Britain and its allies, having sided with Germany.
It had successfully repulsed an attack on Istanbul in the and on Baghdad in the.
The British agent conspired with the Ottoman governorthe Sharif of Mecca.
Hussein bin Ali revolted against the Ottoman Empire from Mecca, and it was the first city captured by his forces in the.
Sharif's revolt proved a turning point of the war on the eastern www meccagames com />Sharif Hussein declared a new state, theand declared Mecca as the capital of the new kingdom.
News reports in November 1916 via contact in with returning pilgrims, said that with the Ottoman Turkish authorities gone, Mecca at Hajj 1916 was thankfully free of the previous massive extortion and illegal money-demanding by Turks who were agents of the Ottoman government.
Saudi Arabia Following thethe Sharif of Mecca was overthrown by the Saud family, and Mecca was incorporated into Saudi Arabia.
Under Saudi rule, much of the historic city has been demolished as a result of construction programs —.
On 20 November 1979 two hundred armed dissidents led by Saudi preacher.
They claimed that the Saudi royal family no longer represented pure Islam and that the The Sacred Mosque and the Kaaba, must be held by those of true faith.
The rebels seized tens of thousands of pilgrims as hostages and barricaded themselves in the.
The siege lasted two weeks, and resulted in several hundred deaths and significant damage to the shrine, especially the gallery.
However, the first real expansion was undertaken by in 1956.
The second expansion took place during the era of.
The project was launched in 1988 by the late Saudi.
By the end of this expansion, the great mosque had the capacity to accommodate one, and a half Million Worshippers.
The third expansion took place during era as the mosque was able to accommodate around two million.
Destruction of historic buildings See also: Under Saudi rule, it has been estimated that since 1985 about 95% of Mecca's historic buildings, most over a thousand years old, have been demolished.
Historic sites of religious importance which have been destroyed by the Saudis include five of the renowned "Seven Mosques" initially built by Muhammad's daughter and four of his "greatest Companions": Masjid Abu Bakr, Masjid Salman al-Farsi, Masjid Umar ibn al-Khattab, Masjid Sayyida Fatima bint Rasulullah and Masjid Ali ibn Abu Talib.
It has been reported that there are now fewer than 20 structures remaining in Mecca that date back to the time of Muhammad.
Other buildings that have been destroyed include the house ofthe wife of Muhammad, demolished to make way for public lavatories; the house ofMuhammad's companion, now the site of the local ; the house of Muhammad's grandson and thenow the location of the King's palace in Mecca; Muhammad's birthplace, demolished to make way for a library; and the Ottoman-erademolished for construction of the.
The reason for much of the destruction of historic buildings has been for the construction of hotels, apartments, parking lots, and other infrastructure facilities for pilgrims.
However, many have been destroyed without any such reason.
For example, when the house of Ali-Oraid was discovered, himself ordered that it be bulldozed lest it should become a pilgrimage site.
Pilgrimage The involves pilgrims visiting Al-Haram Mosque, but mainly camping and spending time in the plains of and The pilgrimage to Mecca attracts millions of Muslims from all over the world.
There are two pilgrimages: the and the.
The Hajj, the 'greater' pilgrimage is performed annually in Mecca and nearby sites.
During the Hajj, several million people of varying nationalities worship in unison.
Umrah, the lesser pilgrimage, is not obligatory, but is recommended in the Qur'an.
Often, they perform the Umrah while visiting Al-Haram Mosque.
Incidents during pilgrimage Main article: Mecca has been the site of several incidents and failures of crowd control because of the large numbers of people who come to make the Hajj.
For example, on 2 July 1990, a pilgrimage to Mecca ended in tragedy when the ventilation system failed in a crowded pedestrian tunnel and 1,426 people were either suffocated or trampled to death in a.
On 24 September 2015, 700 pilgrims in a stampede at during the stoning-the-Devil ritual at Jamarat.
Geography Mecca is at an elevation of 277 m 909 ft above sea level, and approximately 80 km 50 mi inland from the Red Sea.
Central Mecca lies in a corridor between mountains, which is often called the "Hollow of Mecca".
The area www meccagames com the valley of Al Taneem, the Valley of Bakkah and the valley of Abqar.
This mountainous location has defined the contemporary expansion of the city.
The city centers on the Masjid al-Haram area, which is lower than most of the city.
The area around the mosque is the old city.
The main avenues are Al-Mudda'ah and Sūq al-Layl to the north of the mosque, and As-Sūg Assaghīr to the south.
As the Saudis expanded the Grand Mosque in the center of the city, hundreds of houses were replaced by wide avenues and city squares.
Traditional homes are built of local rock and are generally two to three stories.
The total area of Mecca today is over 1,200 km 2 460 sq mi.
In pre-modern Mecca, the city used a few chief sources of water.
The first were local wells, such as the Zamzam Well, that produced generally brackish water.
The second source was the spring of Ayn Zubayda.
The sources of this spring are the mountains of J̲abal Saʿd Jabal Sa'd and Jabal Kabkāb, which are a few kilometers east of Jabal Arafa or about 20 km 12 mi southeast of Mecca.
Water was transported from it using underground channels.
A very sporadic third source was rainfall which was stored by the people in small reservoirs or.
The rainfall, scant as it is, also presents the threat of flooding and has been a danger since earliest times.
According to Al-Kurdī, there had been 89 historic floods by 1965, including several in the Saudi period.
In the last century the most severe flood was in 1942.
Since then, dams have been build to ameliorate this problem.
Neighborhoods Main article: Mecca features a.
Like most Saudi Arabian cities, Mecca retains warm to hot temperatures even in winter, which can range from 18 °C 64 °F at night to 30 °C 86 °F in the afternoon.
Summer temperatures are extremely hot continue reading consistently break the 40 °C 104 °F mark in the afternoon, dropping to 30 °C 86 °F in the evening.
Rain usually falls in Mecca in small amounts scattered between November and January.
Climate data for Mecca Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C °F 37.
The mosque surrounds the Kaaba, which Muslims turn towards while offering.
This mosque is also commonly known as the or Grand Mosque.
Asbecause of the hostility to reverence being paid to historic and religious buildings, Mecca has lost most of its heritage in recent years and few buildings from the last 1,500 years have survived Saudi rule.
Expansion of the city is ongoing and includes the construction of 601 m 1,972 ft tall across the street from the Masjid al-Haram.
The towers were the third tallest building in the world when completed in 2012.
The construction of the towers involved the demolition of thewhich in turn sparked a dispute between Turkey and Saudi Arabia.
The is home to a celebrated water spring.
However, the Saudi government removed the structure to give space for hotels and business buildings near to the Grand Mosque.
The Quran Gate Thelocated on the Jeddah-Mecca Highway, marks the boundary of the area where non-Muslims are prohibited to enter.
It is the entrance to Makkah and the birthplace of Muhammad.
The gate was designed in 1979 by www meccagames com Egyptian architect, Samir Elabd, for the architectural firm IDEA Center.
The structure is that of a book, representing the Qur'an, sitting on a rehal, or book stand.
Economy The Meccan economy has been heavily dependent on the annual pilgrimage.
The income was generated in bash free bingo game number of ways.
One method was taxing the pilgrims.
Taxes especially increased during theand many of these taxes existed as late as 1972.
Another way the Hajj generates income is through services to pilgrims.
For example, the Saudi, generates 12% of its income from the pilgrimage.
Fares paid by pilgrims to reach Mecca by land also generate income; as do the hotels and lodging companies that house them.
There are some industries and factories in the city, but Mecca no longer plays a major role in Saudi Arabia's economy, which is mainly based on oil exports.
The few industries operating in Mecca include textiles, furniture, and utensils.
The majority of the economy is service-oriented.
Makkah Azizia district at noon Nevertheless, many industries have been set up in Mecca.
Various types of enterprises that have existed since 1970: corrugated iron manufacturing, copper smithies, carpentry shops, upholstering establishments, vegetable oil extraction plants, sweets manufacturies, flour mills, bakeries, poultry farms, frozen food importing, photography processing, secretarial establishments, ice factories, bottling plants for soft drinks, barber shops, book shops, travel agencies and banks.
The city has grown substantially in the 20th and 21st centuries, as the convenience and affordability of travel has increased the number of pilgrims participating in the.
Thousands of Saudis are employed year-round to oversee the Hajj and staff the hotels and shops that cater to pilgrims; these workers in turn have increased the demand for housing and services.
The city is now ringed by freeways, and contains shopping malls and skyscrapers.
Health care Health care is provided by the Saudi government free of charge to all pilgrims.
Culture Al-Haram Mosque and the Mecca's culture has been affected by the large number of pilgrims money free speech ruling arrive annually, and thus boasts a rich cultural heritage.
As a result of the vast numbers of pilgrims coming to the city each year, Mecca has become by far the most diverse city in the Muslim world.
In contrast to the rest of Saudi Arabia, and particularlyMecca has, according tobecome "a striking oasis" of free thought and discussion and, also, of "unlikely liberalism" as "Meccans see themselves as a bulwark against the creeping extremism that read article overtaken much Islamic debate".
The first press was brought to Mecca in 1885 byan Ottoman.
During the Hashemite period, it was used to print the city's official gazette, al-Qibla.
The Saudi regime expanded this press into a larger operation, introducing the new Saudi official gazette Umm al-Qurā.
Henceforth presses and printing techniques were introduced in the city from around themostly via Jeddah.
Mecca owns its hometown paper.
However, other Saudi https://filmman.ru/bingo-free/guest-bingo-free.html international newspapers are also provided in Mecca such as the, and.
The first three are Mecca's and other Saudi cities' primary newspapers focusing mainly on issues that affect the city, with over a million readers.
Many television stations serving the city area include, and various cable, satellite and other specialty television providers.
In pre-modern Mecca the most common sports were impromptu wrestling and foot races.
Cuisine As in other Arabian cities, a spiced dish of rice and meat is the most traditional lunch but the a dish of rice and tandoori cooked meat is also popular.
Duringand are the most popular dishes and are eaten at.
These dishes are almost always found in, and restaurants.
Traditionally during the month of Ramadan, men known as Saggas provided mineral water and fruit juice for Muslims breaking their fast at dusk.
Today, Saggas make money providing sweets such as and basbosa along with fruit juice drinks.
Exotic foods, such as fruits from India and Japan, are often brought by the pilgrims.
Demographics Population density in Mecca is very high.
Most long-term residents of Mecca live in the Old City, and many work in the industry known locally as the Hajj Industry.
Iyad Madani, Saudi Arabia's minister for Hajj, was quoted as saying, "We never stop preparing for the Hajj.
Pilgrims are from varying and backgrounds, mainly, theand.
Many of these pilgrims have remained and become residents of the city.
The Burmese are an older, more established community who number roughly 250,000.
Adding to the Hajj-related diversity, the oil-boom of the past 50 years has brought hundreds of thousands of working immigrants.
Non-Muslims are not permitted to enter Mecca underand using fraudulent documents to do so may result in arrest and prosecution.
The prohibition extends toas they are considered non-Muslims.
Nevertheless, many non-Muslims and Ahmadis have visited the city.
The first such recorded example of non-Muslims is that of of in 1503.
One of the most famous waswho traveled as a from in 1853.
Truly the Pagans are unclean; so let them not, after this year of theirs, approach the Sacred Mosque.
The first major attempt to improve the situation was made by a Jeddah merchant, Muhammad ʿAlī Zaynal Riḍā, who founded the Madrasat al-Falāḥ in Mecca in 1911—12 that cost £400,000.
The school system in Mecca has many public and private schools for both males and females.
As of 2005, there were 532 and for males and another 681 public and private schools for female students.
The medium of instruction in both public and private schools is Arabic with emphasis on English as abut some private schools founded by foreign entities such as use the English language for medium of instruction.
They also allow mixing between males and females while other schools do not.
For higher education, the city has only one university,which was established in 1949 as a college and became a public university in 1979.
Saadanius is considered to be a primate closely related to the common ancestor of the and.
The fossil habitat, near what is now the Red Sea in western Saudi Arabia, was a damp forest area between 28 million and 29 million years ago.
Paleontologists involved in the research hope to find further fossils in the area.
Communications Telecommunications in the city were emphasized early under the Saudi reign.
King Ibn Saud pressed them forward as he saw them as a means of convenience and better governance.
While in time there were about 20 telephones in the entire city; in 1936 the number jumped to 450, totalling about half the telephones in the country.
By 1985, Mecca, like other Saudi cities, possessed modern telephone, telex, radio and television communications.
Limited radio communication was established within the Kingdom under the Hashimites.
In 1929, wireless stations were set up in various towns of the region, creating a network that would become fully functional by 1932.
Soon after World War II, the existing network was greatly expanded and improved.
Since then, radio communication has been used extensively in directing the pilgrimage and addressing the pilgrims.
This practice started in 1950, with the initiation of broadcasts theand increased until 1957, at which time Radio Makka became the most powerful station in the Middle East at 50 kW.
Later, power was increased to 450 kW.
Music was not immediately broadcast, but gradually introduced.
Transportation Air Hajj terminal Mecca has only the small Mecca East Airport with no airline service, so Mecca is served by : JED, : OEJN located atabout 100 kilometres from the city centre.
To cater the large number of Hajj pilgrims, this airport has a specifically built Hajj terminal which can accommodate 47 planes simultaneously and it can receive 3,800 pilgrims per hour during the Hajj season.
Rail Haramain High-Speed Railway In 2018, Haramain High-Speed Railway was launched connecting the Two holy cities of Makkah and Medina together.
The railway consists of 35 trains and it is capable to transport 60 million passengers.
Every train is as fast as 300km per hour and travels over the distance of 450 km.
Al Mashaaer Al Mugaddassah Metro is a metro line in Mecca opened in 13 November 2010.
Mecca Metro Mecca Metro Route Mapofficially known as Makkah Mass Rail Transit, is a planned four-line system for the city.
This will be in addition to the which carries pilgrims during Hajj.
Intercity A high speed inter-city rail line also known as the "Western Railway"is under construction in Saudi Arabia.
It will link along 444 kilometres 276 mithe Muslim holy cities of and Mecca via, Jeddah and.
This rail line is planned to provide a safe and comfortable transport in 320 kilometres per hour 200 mph in-turn reducing the travel time to less than two hours between Mecca and.
It will be built by a business consortium from.
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